PHP SPL标准库之接口(Interface)详解

PHP SPL标准库总共有6个接口,如下:

1.Countable
2.OuterIterator
3.RecursiveIterator
4.SeekableIterator
5.SplObserver
6.SplSubject

其中OuterIterator、RecursiveIterator、SeekableIterator都是继承Iterator类的,下面会对每种接口作用和使用进行详细说明。

Coutable接口:

实现Countable接口的对象可用于count()函数计数。

class Mycount implements Countable
{
public function count()
{
static $count = 0;
$count++;
return $count;
}
}

$count = new Mycount();
$count->count();
$count->count();

echo count($count); //3
echo count($count); //4

说明:

调用count()函数时,Mycount::count()方法被调用
count()函数的第二个参数将不会产生影响

OuterIterator接口:

自定义或修改迭代过程。

//IteratorIterator是OuterIterator的一个实现类
class MyOuterIterator extends IteratorIterator {

public function current()
{
return parent::current() . ‘TEST’;
}
}

foreach(new MyOuterIterator(new ArrayIterator([‘b’,’a’,’c’])) as $key => $value) {
echo “$key->$value”.PHP_EOL;
}
/*
结果:
0->bTEST
1->aTEST
2->cTEST
*/

在实际运用中,OuterIterator极其有用:

$db = new PDO(‘mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test’, ‘root’, ‘mckee’);
$db->query(‘set names utf8’);
$pdoStatement = $db->query(‘SELECT * FROM test1’, PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
$iterator = new IteratorIterator($pdoStatement);
$tenRecordArray = iterator_to_array($iterator);
print_r($tenRecordArray);

RecursiveIterator接口:
用于循环迭代多层结构的数据,RecursiveIterator另外提供了两个方法:

RecursiveIterator::getChildren 获取当前元素下子迭代器
RecursiveIterator::hasChildren 判断当前元素下是否有迭代器

class MyRecursiveIterator implements RecursiveIterator
{
private $_data;
private $_position = 0;

public function __construct(array $data) {
$this->_data = $data;
}

public function valid() {
return isset($this->_data[$this->_position]);
}

public function hasChildren() {
return is_array($this->_data[$this->_position]);
}

public function next() {
$this->_position++;
}

public function current() {
return $this->_data[$this->_position];
}

public function getChildren() {
print_r($this->_data[$this->_position]);
}

public function rewind() {
$this->_position = 0;
}

public function key() {
return $this->_position;
}
}

$arr = array(0, 1=> array(10, 20), 2, 3 => array(1, 2));
$mri = new MyRecursiveIterator($arr);

foreach ($mri as $c => $v) {
if ($mri->hasChildren()) {
echo “$c has children: ” .PHP_EOL;
$mri->getChildren();
} else {
echo “$v” .PHP_EOL;
}

}
/*
结果:
0
1 has children:
Array
(
[0] => 10
[1] => 20
)
2
3 has children:
Array
(
[0] => 1
[1] => 2
)
*/

SeekableIterator接口:

通过seek()方法实现可搜索的迭代器,用于搜索某个位置下的元素。

class MySeekableIterator implements SeekableIterator {

private $position = 0;

private $array = array(
“first element” ,
“second element” ,
“third element” ,
“fourth element”
);

public function seek ( $position ) {
if (!isset( $this -> array [ $position ])) {
throw new OutOfBoundsException ( “invalid seek position ( $position )” );
}

$this -> position = $position ;
}

public function rewind () {
$this -> position = 0 ;
}

public function current () {
return $this -> array [ $this -> position ];
}

public function key () {
return $this -> position ;
}

public function next () {
++ $this -> position ;
}

public function valid () {
return isset( $this -> array [ $this -> position ]);
}
}

try {

$it = new MySeekableIterator ;
echo $it -> current (), “n” ;

$it -> seek ( 2 );
echo $it -> current (), “n” ;

$it -> seek ( 1 );
echo $it -> current (), “n” ;

$it -> seek ( 10 );

} catch ( OutOfBoundsException $e ) {
echo $e -> getMessage ();
}
/*
结果:
first element
third element
second element
invalid seek position ( 10 )
*/

SplObserver和SplSubject接口:
SplObserver和SplSubject接口用来实现观察者设计模式,观察者设计模式是指当一个类的状态发生变化时,依赖它的对象都会收到通知并更新。使用场景非常广泛,比如说当一个事件发生后,需要更新多个逻辑操作,传统方式是在事件添加后编写逻辑,这种代码耦合并难以维护,观察者模式可实现低耦合的通知和更新机制。
看看SplObserver和SplSubject的接口结构:

//SplSubject结构 被观察的对象
interface SplSubject{
public function attach(SplObserver $observer); //添加观察者
public function detach(SplObserver $observer); //剔除观察者
public function notify(); //通知观察者
}

//SplObserver结构 代表观察者
interface SplObserver{
public function update(SplSubject $subject); //更新操作
}

看下面一个实现观察者的例子:

class Subject implements SplSubject
{
private $observers = array();

public function attach(SplObserver $observer)
{
$this->observers[] = $observer;
}

public function detach(SplObserver $observer)
{
if($index = array_search($observer, $this->observers, true)) {
unset($this->observers[$index]);
}
}

public function notify()
{
foreach($this->observers as $observer) {
$observer->update($this);
}
}

}

class Observer1 implements SplObserver
{
public function update(SplSubject $subject)
{
echo “逻辑1代码”.PHP_EOL;
}
}

class Observer2 implements SplObserver
{
public function update(SplSubject $subject)
{
echo “逻辑2代码”.PHP_EOL;
}
}

$subject = new Subject();
$subject->attach(new Observer1());
$subject->attach(new Observer2());

$subject->notify();
/*
结果:
逻辑1代码
逻辑2代码
*/

PHP SPL标准库之接口(Interface)详解

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